Alternatives to Punishment Part 1: Punishment vs. Consequences

Through my research and learning about peaceful parenting I have learned that force, threats, and punishment (defined as intentional “suffering, pain, or loss that serves as retribution”) are not the most effective forms of discipline if our goal is to produce children who do the right thing because they want to do the right thing (rather than doing the right thing for fear of being punished). Punishment would include spanking, timeout/isolation, withdrawal of love or affection, removal of something desirable, demanding that the child does something undesirable that makes them feel shamed, etc. Punishment always makes children feel worse – and you can’t truly do or become better by feeling worse (see this post). Punishment is psychologically damaging. Punishment always pits us against our child and erodes at our relationship with them, harming the one thing that gives us real, positive influence with them – our loving connection. Punishment sends children into fight or flight, where it is impossible to reason and learn. See this article about what’s wrong with strict (authoritarian) parenting, and this one about why punishment doesn’t teach accountability.

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Natural consequences, on the other hand, can be excellent teachers. But when a lot of parents talk about “consequences” what they’re really referring to is punishment (e.g. “If I hear any more fighting, there will be consequences!”). A consequence is defined as “a result or effect of an action or condition.” It happens naturally, on its own. When we feel like we have to fabricate arbitrary consequences in order for our children to learn a lesson (even if they seem logical), those “consequences” are never as effective as natural consequences because, if we are the one causing the painful outcome, our children are more likely to view it the same way they view punishment, which sends them into fight or flight and causes them to view us as the enemy. When we allow natural consequences to happen, while offering empathy, our children have a greater chance of learning desirable lessons from them, while also building their trust and connection with us, which increases the likelihood that they’ll follow us in the future.

For example, the consequence of my child messing around at bedtime instead of getting ready for bed is that we run out of time for bedtime stories. We could push bedtime back and still read stories, saving her from the consequence of her actions, but there is a valuable lesson to be learned in the natural consequence that follows when we don’t do what we need to do, when we need to do it. So instead we set firm limits with empathy (the empathy is important here!). On the other hand, we could treat this as a punishment by saying, “That’s it! No bedtime stories! That’s what you get for messing around instead of brushing your teeth!” But then our child is less likely to cooperate or to follow us in the future than she would be if we say (in a sincere tone), “Oh sweetie, I know how much you want to read bedtime stories. That’s your favorite part of the bedtime routine, huh? But sweetheart, we’re out of time. I’m sorry this is hard. Maybe tomorrow night if you hurry fast enough we might have time for an extra story!” Empathizing through the natural consequence (while staying firm) is more effective and more loving than punishment.

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But wait – God is the perfect parent, and He punishes His children when they’re wicked, right? Knowing what I know about discipline and feeling its truth so strongly,  I was really confused by the fact that the scriptures talk over and over about God’s wrath and about Him punishing the wicked. I had a hard time reconciling that in my mind with the idea of a gentle, merciful, loving God – especially when I consider how the Savior handled situations with sinners (see below). Surely our Heavenly Father knows how His children learn best, and what will change their hearts (and thus, their behavior). So what was I missing? Why would He use punishment?

Before I go on, let me be clear that God’s ways are higher than our ways, and that we more than likely will not understand all of His ways in this life. Whatever the Lord does, or whatever He requires, is right – even if we don’t understand His reasons – of that I have no doubt. If He chooses to use punishment, then that is right. But for the sake of understanding what His will is in my parenting, I have sought to understand this issue better. Is punishment (intentionally causing pain) His way?

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We know that “there is a law, irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world, upon which all blessings are predicated—And when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated” (D&C 130:20-21). Likewise, if we break those laws then the blessings attached to them do not come to us.

We know that the natural consequences of sin are always negative, and the Lord doesn’t intervene to protect us from the effects of our sins unless we fully and sincerely repent (see 2 Nephi 2:7 and D&C 19:16). These natural consequences are often very effective. But what about punishment? Does God, in His wrath, actually inflict punishment on the wicked? Or is their ‘punishment’ simply a natural result of breaking eternal laws?

In the Book of Mormon there is a story about a Nephite army and a Lamanite army. The formerly-righteous Nephites had become hardened and vengeful and blood-thirsty and filled with a desire to destroy their enemies, the Lamanites. Mormon, the Nephites’ righteous commander, refused to continue leading them from that point forward because of their wickedness, but they went to battle anyway. Mormon 4:4-5 reads, “And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them. But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed” (emphasis added). God didn’t force the Lamanites to destroy the Nephites because of their wickedness. I don’t believe that force and destruction are part of His nature. But He did allow it to happen, because the Nephites refused to repent and thus were beyond the reach of His mercy (see Mosiah 2:38-39).

I wonder if sometimes when men in the scriptures talk about punishment, they’re really referring to natural (negative) consequences of sin that God allows to happen because the sinners refuse to repent. Perhaps it’s an issue of semantics and defining punishment and rewards/blessings: Following eternal laws results in positive natural consequences called blessings (which are attached to the specific laws, and which the Lord delights in bestowing); and perhaps breaking eternal laws – sinning – without repenting results in negative natural consequences called punishments, which are attached to those crimes (see 2 Nephi 2:10). I don’t think God comes up with arbitrary consequences for our actions; rather, our consequences are already affixed. Living a life full of love and service naturally leads to positive relationships and connections with others, as well as the ability to be influenced by the Spirit. Living a life of murder and bloodshed naturally leads to enemies who seek to destroy you, as well as other negative consequences of sin.

We might better understand this as the law of justice. LDS.org says, “In scriptural terms, justice is the unchanging law that brings consequences for actions. Because of the law of justice, we receive blessings when we obey God’s commandments. The law of justice also demands that a penalty be paid for every sin we commit. When the Savior carried out the Atonement, He took our sins upon Himself. He was able to “answer the ends of the law” (2 Nephi 2:7) because He subjected Himself to the penalty that the law required for our sins. In doing so, He “satisfied the demands of justice” and extended mercy to everyone who repents and follows Him (see Mosiah 15:9; Alma 34:14-16). Because He has paid the price for our sins, we will not have to suffer that punishment if we repent (see D&C 19:15-20).” So mercy does not negate the need for that penalty, or “punishment,” to be paid, but rather, it allows for Someone else to pay that price on our behalf if we will receive Him and repent. When we refuse to repent, that penalty must still be paid — just as “what goes up must come down,” all sin must be paid for. So that punishment when we refuse to repent is not our Heavenly Father’s way of getting back at us or trying to hurt us, it is simply the law of justice being upheld. The Lord’s definition of punishment does not appear to be the same as man’s.

How about the definition of wrath? I really liked this perspective on the wrath of God: “The works of God are works of love and restoration. They always have been, and always will be. . . . Those who are opposed to God’s love and restoration in the world will experience an aspect of God’s love that feels like wrath, because the forces that oppose love will one day be either transformed or eliminated from creation. . . . God’s story . . . [is] a story of purging all that is not loving, until everything is restored and only love remains. . . . Love purges war, famine, disease, oppression, hatred, violence, and everything else that fights against love. It’s what love does. . . .  Those who refuse to partner with love, and insist on continuing to fight in opposition to all that love does, will experience a side of love that does not feel like love. To them, it might even feel like wrath. Thus, when we affirm the “wrath of God” it’s not so much an affirmation of wrath at all—but an affirmation of love.” In other words, I believe that God’s wrath is not anger or hatred toward His children, but toward sin and evil, which He naturally purges because “God is love” (1 John 4:8). And those on the other side, who refuse to join with Him, will naturally be purged as well. From the New Testament student manual: “The “wrath” of God is not hostility toward mankind; rather, it is rejection of sin.” So perhaps “punishment” is a result of His wrath — toward sin and all that attach themselves to sin and refuse to let go.

So then how does God discipline His children? (And remember that ‘discipline’ means ‘to teach.’) Check out part 2 where we’ll look at God’s character and the way He disciplines us.

“I Will Not Leave You Comfortless”

My babies have never been exceptionally good sleepers. I have never been able to lay them down and have them go to sleep on their own (not consistently, anyway). It takes them a long time (compared to other babies) to sleep long stretches or through the night. They have never been “marathon nappers.” But honestly, I am okay with all of this now that I know what normal infant sleep is.

Still, I have had several people wonder why I don’t just let my babies “cry it out” so that they’ll sleep better. Here’s my experience.

When my oldest was a baby (probably 8-10 months), I was desperate for her to sleep through the night. After all, her cousin who’s the same age had been sleeping through the night for months. I thought something was wrong with my baby, or that I was doing something wrong. I was exhausted and worried and stressed. Almost everyone I talked to, and almost everything I looked at online, suggested leaving her to cry it out. I didn’t like the idea, but I finally decided to give it a try. I thought it was my only option.

So one night after our bedtime routine my husband and I put our daughter down in her crib awake, kissed her goodnight, and walked out. Now, at this point, some babies will fuss for a couple minutes and then go to sleep. Seems like a great solution! But that is not what our daughter did. She was extremely upset (which really is understandable). But we left anyway, and we watched the clock until it was “time” to go back in. I went back in and tried to comfort her (which didn’t work because I didn’t pick her up) and then left again. She screamed bloody murder. I went back to the living room to diligently wait with my husband. But I felt sick inside. Every instinct inside me was screaming at me to go pick up my baby, to hold her and comfort her. But I was supposed to be “strong.” After all, if I didn’t do this, she would never learn to sleep on her own. It was for her own good. Right? I wasn’t so sure. I desperately wanted to throw this whole idea out the window, but I felt like I needed permission.

Finally I said something to my husband. Something like, “Honey, I don’t want to do this.” And then he said, “So let’s not do it. Go get her.” That was all I needed.

I went in to my baby girl and picked her up. I sat with her in the rocking chair and held her tight while she tried to calm down. I cried with her. And then, as we sat there in the stillness that followed, I had some thoughts enter my mind. I wondered what the Savior would do in this situation.

“Then the Holy Spirit enters into my thoughts, saying:

‘Love one another as Jesus loves you.
Try to show kindness in all that you do.
Be gentle and loving in deed and in thought,
For these are the things Jesus taught.'”
(I’m Trying to Be Like Jesus, Children’s Songbook, pg 78)
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Credit: Jean Keaton

I pictured my Savior with my little girl. I couldn’t imagine Him leaving her to cry by herself. In fact, He promised His disciples, and has in effect promised all of us:

 “I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you.”
(John 14:18)

I felt peace in my decision to do the same for my daughter that night.

I have heard some argue that the Lord does require us to do hard things on our own, but I disagree. He does ask us to do hard things, but we never have to do them alone.

 

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 Since that time I have educated myself about infant and toddler sleep and what is normal, and have learned that we as parents do not need to (and shouldn’t) fight our God-given instincts and intuition. Even if we do nothing to encourage it, children naturally learn to sleep on their own eventually. (And for those who just can not wait for that to happen in their child’s own time – and I get it – there are gradual, gentle ways to encourage independent sleep in an older baby or toddler.) God created us the way He did on purpose – He knew what He was doing. So our parental instincts to hold and comfort our child will not create “bad habits” that can’t be broken, and our child is not doomed to a life without sleep unless we traumatize her. We need not fear. “For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind” (2 Timothy 1:7).

I feel it’s important to note that I do not judge other parents for making a different choice. Truly. Especially when mental health challenges are involved. I do believe that God can heal all things and that we can all eventually be just like Jesus and do as He would do. But I also know that it’s not always so black and white. Each of us are doing the best we can with the knowledge and experience and abilities we have. We all need support and kindness and love through this journey called parenthood. I hope and pray that this post will offer encouragement and help and hope to those who need it.

And for those who feel, as I did, like you need permission not to sleep train, here it is. Go to your baby. Hold her, cuddle her, love on her. Sleep with her if you wish to. This stage will not last forever. Trust your God-given instincts, your intuition. Choose love. Parent with faith and not with fear. It will all be okay.